“As the world begins to zero in on the need to bring this soil back to life—as a solution to drought, nitrogen pollution, climate change, and more—farmers like Emmons and others practicing no-till in the middle of the country could play a key role. As they reshape their operations with a focus on things like earthworms and water filtration, and practice a suite of other approaches that fit loosely under the umbrella of “regenerative agriculture,” these farmers are stepping out of the ag mainstream. And while most no-till farmers see organic agriculture as inherently disruptive to the soil, they also have a great deal in common with many of the smaller-scale farmers that are popular with today’s coastal consumers.
These two groups of farmers don’t use the same language to describe what they’re doing (you’re unlikely to hear words like “sustainable” or “climate change” among the no-till set, for instance), but it’s clear that both groups are motivated by the opportunity to be responsible stewards of the land while exploring creative solutions to the status quo. And many no-till farmers are also just as skeptical as their organic counterparts are of the large seed and fertilizer companies they see as running their neighbors’ lives (and controlling their finances).”
“By comparing computer models with NOx measurements collected by airplane over California’s Central Valley last summer, the researchers found that fertilized soils may actually be contributing up to about 40 percent of the state’s nitrogen oxides emissions, more than ten times what the state currently estimates.”
New satellite data shows just how important is plant-soil evapotranspiration and how it lasts longer than once believed.
Some meteorologists say up to half of the rainfall on a continent comes from the evapotranspiration of plants and soil. This implies a huge reward for better soil management.
Diana Donlon, director of Center for Food Safety’s (CFS) Soil Solutions program in the United States, spoke to the Soil Association at a lunchtime session about the necessity of improving soil health around the world.
“If we enlist Nature’s immense powers to rebuild soil health, we can regenerate landscapes at scale and ultimately bring the carbon cycle back into balance.”
Diana Donlon began by highlighting that, despite excess carbon in the atmosphere being a daunting problem, carbon in the soil is an invaluable, but often depleted, resource. The world’s cultivated soils, however, have lost between 50-70% of their original carbon stocks and when soils lose carbon, they lose their ability to function properly.
A key measure of soil health is levels of soil organic matter (SOM), which is crucial for long-term yields, food quality, extreme weather resilience, and as a vital store of soil carbon. Increasing the SOM level in degraded UK soils would provide better defense against flooding by reducing run-off, and would dramatically increase the yield and quality of food produced.
“Between the devastating fires in both Northern and Southern California, and now rivers of rushing mud, Californians have been reminded that Nature is far more powerful than we”
Ms. Donlon quickly went on to underscore more uplifting news. She explained that we now know how to rebuild soil carbon by encouraging biological processes like photosynthesis that takes CO2 out of the atmosphere and stores it in the ground as soil carbon. Healthy soils act as a carbon sink by drawing carbon down into the soil to store it. Improving soil health is therefore a critical way to tackle climate change.
In 2015, CFS made a short film to highlight the importance of soil carbon. “Soil Solutions to Climate Problems” was narrated by the well-known American author Michael Pollan and first screened at the launch of French Government’s “4 per 1000” initiative at the United Nations’ COP21. Both Center for Food Safety and the Soil Association are members of the “4 per 1000” initiative that aims to rebuild soil carbon stocks globally.
Soil Solutions works on policy internationally via “4 per 1000” and in the US. Headquartered in San Francisco, Diana Donlon is actively involved in Californian climate/soil policy and helped to establish a “Healthy Soil Program” to provide financial incentives to California growers and ranchers to implement conservation management practices.
California, with the sixth largest economy in the world, will be hosting a Global Climate Action Summit in San Francisco in September 2018. A key focus will be advocating the potential of healthy soils to draw-down carbon from the atmosphere. The Soil Association will be working to ensure that sustainable UK farming is represented at that summit and we will be collaborating with other pioneering groups (such as CFS’ Soil Solutions) to communicate the necessity to advance sustainable agriculture (including organic) as an important climate tool.
Today our world is visually dominated by animals and plants, but this world would not have been possible without fungi, say University of Leeds scientists.
Researchers have carried out experiments where plants and fungi are grown in atmospheres resembling the ancient Earth and, by incorporating their results into computer models, have shown that fungi were essential in the creation of an oxygen-rich atmosphere.
Humans and other mammals require high levels of oxygen to function, and it is generally thought that the planet developed an oxygen-rich atmosphere around 500 to 400 million years ago, as carbon dioxide was gradually photosynthesised by the first land plants.
The research team: Dr. Katie Field from the Centre for Plant Sciences, Dr. Sarah Batterman from the School of Geography and Dr. Benjamin Mills from the School of Earth and Environment, show that fungi played a critical part in establishing the breathable atmosphere on Earth by “mining” the nutrient phosphorus from rocks and transferring it to plants to power photosynthesis.
Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-12-fungi-life.html#jCp